Thursday, December 5, 2019
Leading Practice Sustainable Development Program
Question: Discuss about the Leading Practice Sustainable Development Program. Answer: Introduction: There has been no clarity regarding the originality of Aboriginal people in Australia. Archaeologist using a scientific method such as thermoluminescence, accelerator mass spectrometry, optically stimulated luminescence to determine the date of the arrival of Aboriginal communities and therefore the time of arrival has been a matter of discussion. Most preferred date of the arrival is between 40000-80,000 years (Harris, 2012). However, the method such as radiocarbon dating method becomes hard to tell because of the maximum age limit of 40,000 years (Ford, 2010). There was an integration of genomic and deposit of Reef in Queensland hence supporting the arrival of aboriginal could be before 60,000 years. The finding of Mungo man remains in 1974 near Lake Mungo is believed to be 40,000 years old by consensus (Hall, 2007). Due to the advancement of technology, DNA samples analysis has found that Aboriginal genomes consist of 11% India shows a close correlation between northern Australia and Indian population(Hall 2007).In 2012, genotyping revealed that indigenous people of South Philippines and Guinea Mamanwa and aboriginal are related (Harris, 2012) Eventually, due to high wind and temperature decreasing, it started forming glacial, sea level dropped by 140 meters experience .rainfall reduced from 40 to 50% and the low carbon dioxide level(Berg, 2002).The introduction of the fire-stick farming is one of the key points of extinction of Aboriginal people over the Australian megafauna (Berg,2002). Before the arrival of colonial, the style and mode of life varied from one region to another. Aboriginal were still hunters and gathers and fisherman who were living near rivers, and ocean (Hall, 2007). They used fire purposely for ceremonial, reduce catastrophic bushfires, control the pest, encourage the growth of edible fruits, to make easy traveling during the night and for protection during the war (Hall, 2007).In central Australia have shown a very complex kinship structure on how to come together, marriages, and how men should marry a woman of a certain moiety (Behrendt et al., 2009). In 1788, the British had captured the east coast of Australia. As a result, the densely populated area declined tremendously due to epidemic diseases such as measles, influenza, smallpox, tuberculosis and chicken pox (Harris, 2012). The fertility and birth rate of Aboriginal started to decline due to the conditions associated with European settlers. Additionally, the drug including opium, tobacco, and alcohol brought chronic and terminal illnesses to people. Aboriginal people believed to be connected with the land both spiritually and culture.However, setbacks arose to the settlers, though the aboriginal was nomadic, so there was no sense for them to occupy the fertile land (Harris, 2012). In 1838, what referred to as black blood, 28 Aboriginal people was killed during Myall Creek massacre. One Africa, six white men and seven of the convict settlers were sentenced and hung for the homicides. Apart from infectious disease causing around 50% of Aboriginal death, there was poisoning of water and food. The violent and torture by white settler is still point of discussion (Minnerup and Solberg, 2011). Many indigenous workforces adapted to the culture of the European and therefore were laborers in their land. Due to this forced labor, economic activities in the area changed from native to European style. Christians missionary provided for the child orphanage and schools.in some areas they provided food and clothing as their family members worked in for unpaid labor in white settlers farms (Hall, 2007). Eventually, the culture and taboos for the indigenous became rare. Settlers introduced the cows, sheep, and goats which feed on fertile land which domestic animals were finding and therefore caused animals to diminish with time In the 1920s the population of the native had declined in the range of between 50,000 to 90,000 people (Ford, 2010). Despite facing foreign culture, constant epidemic diseases forced labor and violent from white settlers, some were absorbed in military forces. Aboriginal peoples remained to be a laborer but who were lucky enough were absorbed in a military and paid equitable salary. However, their movement was under check and regulated, and thus protesting on this harsh regulation (Harris, 2012). Discovery of antibiotic to treat pneumonia made the population rise 1940s. Additionally, peoples had adopted and persisted in very hard climatic conditions. During the war world war II, there was a breakout of war in the northern territory between the visiting Asian and European against the indigenous groups who were hunters and gatherers (Minnerup and Solberg, 2011) However, in 1949, Western Australia, north of the country and Queensland, Indigenous Australia did not have a voting right in a federal election due to their ineligibility to voting in the state election (Behrendt et al., 2009). But people in military forces were eligible to vote.By 1962, Menzies government granted the Western Australia (Behrendt et al., 2009).Additionally, indigenous Australia was granted voting right in the Commonwealth. Moreover the in 1965 the Queensland was also given the right to vote in the state election. Building on the same point, 90% of Indigenous passed the referendum regarding the right to make a special law for a particular race in the Commonwealth (Behrendt et al., 2009).In 1971, injunction regarding mining was sought by the Yolngu people at yirrkala against the nabalco.In 1972 and 1975, Aboriginal tent embassy was established regarding strangers in their country and drafting of the indigenous land rights act respectively. What followed is the federal government in 1987 giving a report on the that the indigenous people should leave the missions and non-aboriginal township, reserves and government settlement to inhabit their ancestral land (Behrendt et al., 2009). Enactment of different legislation for recognition of the natives was done.One occurred in the Australia court in 1998.Inquiry regarding the separation of the indigenous children from their families was instituted. As a result, there was the establishment of the national sorry day (Minnerup and Solberg, 2011). Over a decade, There as been growing numbers of graduate and post graduate students.In the 1970s it was believed that equality associated with education could not be achieved unless the indigenous people are represented in the higher institute of learning. Science markets produce and consume the economy of the knowledge. Indigenous have appreciated the science education as the source of economic and social impacts. To prepare the indigenous community of ever changing environment, since science has led them to acquire the necessary skills. Modern sciences have not detached itself from the historical of the indigenous community lived many years ago. Sciences give the standard in which it can be evaluated in a rational way. The historical problem associated with Australia on education sector is as follows; University guidelines on Vocational interests for the Aboriginal people gave the bad distortion of their history worth School dropout was high due to the aboriginal being in white settlers environment. Denying of aboriginal student entry to learning instituation; contributed by the secondary school's failure to equip student the right qualification. Little as been published about the failure of universities to maintain and support the education of aboriginal students (Liddle, 2016). Scholars have lived in a world of being informed by western sciences in their daily life. Contemporary Indigenous is as to undergo the process of intellectual community building. There was indigenous intellectual transformation; knowledge and traditions transformation. Due to the rise of Western scholarship, it has encouraged some students to pursue their career in science courses. Enlightenment movement of feminism, post- modernism, and post-colonialism have happened over the past Indigenous and not indigenous should not depend on science because relying on western sciences can bring inconsistencies. The scientific rationalism does not reflect the reality rather than culture( Liddle, 2016). References Behrendt, L., Cunneen, C., Libesman, T. (2009). Indigenous legal relations in Australia. South Melbourne, Vic.: Oxford University Press. Berg, R. V. (2002). Nyoongar people of Australia: perspectives on racism and multiculturalism. Leiden: Brill. Ford, L. (2010). Settler Sovereignty: jurisdiction and indigenous people in America and Australia, 1788-1836. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Hall, S. I. (2007). Decolonisation or colonisation?: a comparative analysis of colonial constructs and racial discourse in key indigenous policy statements in Australia and Aotearoa. Harris, M. (2012). A decision to discriminate: Aboriginal disempowerment in the Northern Territory. East Melbourne, Vic.: Concerned Australians. Liddle, C. (2016). First Peoples: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Participation in Higher Education. Student Equity in Australian Higher Education, 53-67. doi:10.1007/978-981-10-0315-8_4 Minnerup, G., Solberg, P. (2011). First world, first nations: internal colonialism and indigenous self-determination in Northern Europe and Australia. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press. Working with indigenous communities: Leading Practice Sustainable Development Program for the mining industry. (2007). Canberra: Dept. of Industry, Tourism and Resources.